What is National Population Register ? | Difference between NRC and NPR |

What is National Population Register

Why in News ??

  • The Union Cabinet has approved a proposal to update the National Population Register (NPR).
  • The National Population Register exercise will be held between April and September 2020 in all states and Union Territories except Assam.
  • Budget for census 2021 will be Rs. 8,754 crore and for updating of National Population Register (NPR) , Rs. 3,941 crore.

What is National Population Register (NPR) ??

  • It is a Register of usual residents of the country.
  • NPR includes both both citizens and non-citizens.
  • It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the National Population Register (NPR).
  • It will prepare at the local (Village/sub-Town)' sub-District, District, State, and National level.
Who is a usual resident ?
A usual resident is defined for the purpose of NPR as - 
  • A person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 month or more.
  • A person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 month or more.

What data will be collected during NPR ??

The National Population Register (NPR) database would contain demographic as well as biometric details.
Biometric - Photograph, 10 fingerprints and IRIS of all usual residents who are of age 5 years and above.

** If Aadhar number is already present then no separate biometric data is required.
Demographic Data
  1. Name of a person
  2. Relationship to head
  3. Sex
  4. Date of Birth
  5. Marital Status
  6. Educational Qualification
  7. Occupation/Activity
  8. Name of Father
  9. Name of Mother
  10. Name of Spouse
  11. Place of Birth
  12. Nationality as declared
  13. Present address of usual resident
  14. Duration of stay at present address
  15. Permanent residential address
Resident Identity Card
  • As per the provisions of the NPR, a resident identity card (RIC) will be issued to individual over the agr of 18.
  • This will be a chip-embedded smart card containing the demographic and biometric attributes of each individual.
  • UID number (Aadhar) will also be printed on the card.
  • The database under the NPR will be maintained by the Registrar General of India and Census Commissioner of India, Ministry of Home Affairs.

Is it the first NPR exercise ??

  • No, the first NPR data collected in 2010 before house listing phase of Census 2011.
  • In 2015, this data was further updated by conducting a door-to-door survey.
  • Digitisation and Aadhar seeding carried out for this NPR data in 2015-16.

What is the aim of NPR ??

  • The objective of the National Population Register (NPR) is to create a comprehensive identity database of every usual resident in the country.
  • It will streamline data of residents across various platforms.
  • It would help in better targeting of the benefits and services under the Government Schemes.
  • Help improve planning.
  • Strengthen security of the country.
NPR and Census
  • Apart from the usual census related questions, National Population Register also asks a respondent where his/her parents were born.
  • Moreover the National Population Register also asks for Aadhar details driver's license, voter identity card and mobile number .
  • NPR, unlike census , will ask for biometric data too.

Law's different between NPR and Population Census 

  • Population census in India is conducted under the Census Act of 1948.
  • While NPR is under the Citizenship Act 1955.
  • So, the two exercise are under completely different legislation.
NPR and NRC ?

NPR - List of Residence
NRC - List of citizens
While NPR will include details of foreigners who are residing in India for a period of 6 months or more, NRC will contain details of only the citizens of India.

Hence, NRC can be said to be a subset of the NPR.
What is the link between NPR and NRC ?
  • NPR can be the baee for a nationwide National Register of Citizens.
  • It is seen as the first step towards a nationwide exercise to implement the National Register of Citizens (according to the same Citizenship rules of 2003 ).
  • Though an NPR doesn't necessarily means it's guaranteed there will be an NRC , it clears that path for the citizens list exercise that was taken up in Assam.
  • This is seen as one of the reasons why sone states like West Bengal and Kerala have stopped work on the NPR.
The 2003 Rules under the head of NRC explicitly state that
  • "During the verification process, particulars of Such individuals, whose citizenship is doubtful, shall be entered by the Local Registrar with appropriate remark in the Population Register for further inquiry.
  • In case of doubtful Citizenship, the individual or the family shall be informed in a specified proforma immediately after the verification process is over".

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